俄羅斯

正式名稱俄羅斯聯邦(Russian Federation)

歐洲東部及亞洲北部國家,前蘇聯的共和國之一。面積17,075,383平方公里。人口約144,417,000(2001)。首都︰莫斯科。大多數人民為俄羅斯人,其他少數民族包括韃靼人、烏克蘭人。語言︰俄語(官方語)、突厥語和烏拉語等多種語言。宗教:俄羅斯東正教、伊斯蘭教,但大部分人民沒有宗教信仰。貨幣︰盧布(Rub)。俄羅斯的地形和環境多種多樣,包括烏拉山脈和西伯利亞東部山脈,最高峰位於堪察加半島。俄羅斯平原有大窩瓦河和北杜味拿河,西伯利亞平原則有鄂畢河、葉尼塞河、勒那河和黑龍江等河谷。北部廣闊地區為凍原覆蓋,南部為森林、大草原和肥沃地區。1917~1945年經濟工業化,但到1980年代經濟嚴重衰退。政府於1992年下令徹底改革,由中央計畫經濟轉向以私人企業為基礎的市場經濟。政府形式為共和國,兩院制。國家元首為總統,政府首腦是總理。

聶斯特河與窩瓦河之間的地區,自古以來即有許多民族曾居住於此,包括斯拉夫人。西元前8世紀到西元6世紀期間,該地區主要活動著一些游牧民族,先後有西蒂安人(Sythian)、薩爾馬特人、哥德人、匈奴人以及阿瓦爾人。10世紀左右,出現了來自基輔的基輔羅斯公國邦聯的統治。11~12世紀基輔羅斯的霸權落入幾個獨立的公國手中,包括諾夫哥羅德(Novgorod)和弗拉基米爾(Vladimir)。諾夫哥羅德在北部崛起,成為13世紀躲過蒙古金帳汗國統治的唯一俄羅斯公國。14~15世紀時,莫斯科諸大公逐漸推翻了蒙古人;在伊凡四世的領導下,俄羅斯開始擴張。1613年形成羅曼諾夫王朝。彼得大帝(彼得一世)和凱薩琳二世時期繼續擴張。1812年拿破侖侵入該地區;拿破侖戰敗後,1815年俄羅斯接收了大部分華沙公國的領地。19世紀里,俄羅斯吞并了喬治亞、亞美尼亞以及高加索的領土。俄羅斯向南挺進對抗鄂圖曼帝國,這對歐洲至關重大(參閱Crimea)。克里米亞戰爭中俄羅斯被打敗。1858年中國將黑龍江左岸割讓給俄羅斯,標志著俄羅斯在遠東地區的擴張。1867年俄羅斯把阿拉斯加賣給了美國(參閱Alaska Purchase)。日俄戰爭中俄羅斯的失敗導致了1905年不成功的起義(參閱Russian Revolution of 1905)。第一次世界大戰中與同盟國作戰。1917年民眾推翻了沙皇的統治,標志著蘇維埃政府的開始(參閱Russian Revolution of 1917)。布爾什維克將前帝國的主要部分都帶入共產主義的統治之下,并組成俄羅斯蘇維埃聯邦社會主義共和國(范圍與今日的俄羅斯相同)。1922年俄羅斯蘇維埃聯邦社會主義共和國與其他的蘇維埃共和國一起組成蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯邦(U.S.S.R.,亦稱蘇聯)。關於1922~1991年的歷史參閱Union of Soviet Socialist Republics。1991年蘇聯解體後,重新更名為俄羅斯蘇維埃聯邦社會主義共和國,并成為獨立國協的領導成員。1993年通過新憲法。1990年代俄羅斯在數條戰線上奮斗,受到經濟困難、政治腐敗以及獨立運動等方面的困擾(參閱Chechnya)。

Russia

Nation, eastern Europe and northern Asia, former republic of the U.S.S.R. Area: 6,592,812 sq mi (17,075,383 sq km). Population (1997 est.): 147,231,000. Capital: Moscow. Most of the people are Russian; minorities include Tatars and Ukrainians. Languages: Russian (official), various Turkic and Uralic languages. Religion: Russian Orthodox Christianity, Islam, but most of the people are nonreligious. Currency: ruble. The land and its environments are varied, including the Ural Mtns. and ranges in eastern Siberia, with the highest peaks in Kamchatka. The Russian plain contains the great Volga and Northern Dvina rivers, and in the Siberian plain are the valleys of the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Amur rivers. Tundra covers extensive portions in the north, and in the south there are forests, steppes, and fertile areas. The economy was industrialized from 1917 to 1945 but was in serious decline by the 1980s. In 1992 the government decreed radical reforms to convert the centrally planned economy into a market economy based on private enterprise. Russia is a republic with a bicameral legislative body; its head of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. The region between the Dniester and the Volga rivers was inhabited from ancient times by various peoples, including the Slavs. The area was overrun in the 8th century BC-6th century AD by successive nomadic peoples, including the Sythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Huns, and Avars. Kievan Rus, a confederation of principalities ruling from Kiev, emerged c. 10th century. It lost supremacy in the 11th-12th century to independent principalities, including Novgorod and Vladimir. Novgorod ascended in the north and was the only Russian principality to escape the domination of the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century. In the 14th-15th century the princes of Moscow gradually overthrew the Mongols. Under Ivan IV, Russia began to expand. The Romanov dynasty arose in 1613. Expansion continued under Peter I (the Great) and Catherine II (the Great). The area was invaded by Napoleon in 1812; after his defeat, Russia received most of the grand duchy of Warsaw (1815). Russia annexed Georgia, Armenia, and Caucasus territories in the 19th century. The Russian southward advance against the Ottoman empire was of key importance to Europe (see Crimea). Russia was defeated in the Crimean War. Chinese cession of the Amur River's left bank in 1858 marked Russia's expansion in the Far East. It sold Alaska to the U.S. in 1867 (see Alaska Purchase). Its defeat in the Russo-Japanese War led to an unsuccessful uprising in 1905 (see Russian Revolution of 1905). In World War I it fought against the Central Powers. The popular overthrow of the Czarist regime in 1917 marked the beginning of a government of soviets (see Russian Revolution of 1917). The Bolsheviks brought the main part of the former empire under Communist control and organized it as the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (coextensive with present-day Russia). The Russian S.F.S.R. joined other soviet republics in 1922 to form the U.S.S.R. (See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics for history 1922-91.) Upon the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. in 1991, the Russian S.F.S.R. was renamed and became the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It adopted a new constitution in 1993. During the 1990s, it struggled on several fronts, beset with economic difficulties, political corruption, and independence movements (see Chechnya).

參考文章